Account of a first-timer’s international research fieldwork- expectations and lessons learned in Botswana
The complex process of doing international fieldwork is widely acknowledged by researchers. In research methods classes, professors with such experience, try to prepare their students with anecdotal accounts and insights from their own experiences. However, fieldwork is a complex issue that can only be learnt by doing; and no amount of lectures or books are enough to truly prepare student researchers for their unique experience and quandaries. However, sharing of experiences are useful to provide hope and reduce uncertainty for first-time international researchers.
As a student researcher, with know-hows from three graduate-level research methods courses, academic knowledge from numerous African Community Health courses and experience from independent research in USA, I had the audacity to think that I am not too unprepared for the study I was embarking in. My professors have diligently taught me how to design research, write field notes and memos, prepare questionnaires, conduct interviews, analyze data and write findings. Additionally, I also learned to be reflexive of my positionality as a qualitative researcher and to conduct research ethically so that I don’t harm my research participants. But, no class has prepared me for instances when I could not even truly start my fieldwork even when I was in the field.
The dubiety with my research experience started with the very question of what type of visa I needed to conduct my research. The website of the Botswana Embassy told that all researchers, other than citizens of Botswana, are required to take ‘residence permits’ prior to entering the country. Knowing the time it may take to get such permit and considering I will be staying in the country for less than a month, the thought of going through the process was concerning. Email communication with our queries about research permit was terribly delayed because of lack of response from the community partner organization for our research. After bombardment of emails to them, we finally came to know that we will not need a ‘residence permit’ since ours is a ‘short research’.
Once this was confirmed, we applied for the visa to the embassy with its website assuring visa within 21 business days. We had one and half month in hand: of course were not worried about not getting the visa on time– and of course we were wrong! It was not only the day before I was flying that I received an email promising me “an on-arrival visa”. However, I did not know that the document needed an official stamp; and at every point of immigration and boarding I was barraged with questions . An apparently simple oversight on the side of the visa officer made my 20-something hour journey from Athens to Gabarone full of anxiety and confusion. When I finally landed at my destination point, the visa officer refused to stamp my passport without the visa stamp and my visa fee receipt which the Embassy never sent me. To top it, the day of my arrival was a public holiday in Botswana, because of which the immigration officer could not contact their head office to check my records. Thankfully, she allowed me to enter the country, with a document that asked me to visit the Immigration Head Office for my on-arrival visa. So, there I was in a continent I have never been to, in a country where I didn’t speak the language spoken by the common people– without a visa and with just my carry-on luggage. I wish I knew the importance of official stamp for all official documents and insisting in getting proof of all monetary transaction.
One of my first and perhaps biggest learning about international fieldwork is the importance of local contacts in the foreign country who can support you for unexpected incidents. No matter, how much you have read about the country and how much you have prepared, there will be instances when you will need immediate support for apparently silly(but important) things like an electricity socket that doesn’t fit the adapter you have bought yourself for the visit to more serious things like locating the exact officer who is in charge of stamping your visa. These are the people who I will remember the most after I go back home after completing this research.
I had expected to start data collection within a few days after coming to Botswana. We had applied for our research permit while we were in the USA, and were expecting it soon. However, the research officer had been on leave, which delayed our process. When the approval process finally got through, we had to make changes in the procedure of verbal consent to written consent. It is important to find out the preferred consent procedure from researchers with previous local experiences; which can be different for countries in the same continent. Something that worked in one African country, might not work in another country. It is also important to keep in mind that any changes made for one ethical review board needs amendment for the home -country IRB(Institutional Review Board) too.
Although we have technically not started our “research-work”, there are costs involved like food, transportation and communication merely because we are staying in the country/field. Because it was our first research experience, we had not anticipated some of the logistical costs involved. I came to appreciate to take account the time and effort it is needed to communicate and manage the logistics of the research project. When working in a team, recoding experience though field notes and expenditures through maintaining records is a necessity for informing, accountability and transparency. I had expected to learn a lot about research methods from my experience; however, I have learned more about project management, logistics and record-keeping, which are crucial components of research-work that are not discussed or taught in coursework.
In the absence of a research permit that would enable us to collect data, I took the initiative to immerse myself with the different organizations that dealt with the issues of my research. It was amazing how much I learned from merely talking to people about my research. Nowhere in the academic literature had I read about passion-killing and high attempted suicide incidents that locals immediately identified when I discussed gender-based violence. It was equally useful to hear real life stories about how HIV-positive adolescents may not know their status and are likely to be more vulnerable to violence. We had read about the silence regarding sexual issues, but it was eye-opening to find that even educators working on sexual and reproductive health would shy away when talking about these issues. It was only after warming up conversations with general discussions about practices in our own country, that the people opened up about their country. This gave me practical experience of building rapport, something we have been taught in the methods classes. I also took notes about important issues that I should be mindful of probing when I am asking questions to the actual research participants. These background encounters have prepared me better for the actual fieldwork. So, as much as I would have loved to embark on data collection as soon as I came, it is a good thing that we unexpectedly got time to get more acquainted with the field. The next time I would plan an international research, I would start preparing further ahead of time and definitely plan on keeping at least around a week in hand to get accustomed and immersed with the local people.
If you have half a day to spare, this spot is a worthy-visit if you are visiting Gaborone. The place really provide some essence of the feeling of traditional Tswana culture that is impossible to find in the urban, modern population of Botswana today. Of course it is created specifically for the tourists, but I really enjoyed experiencing a token of the tradition which I otherwise would have probably never experienced.
Just the brochure with the details
So, the tour started with an old lady greeting us to the lodge. She was followed by other elderly ladies who lead us inside. Once in, she told us that we would be greeted by dancers dressed in traditional outfits.
It was interesting to finally see Batswana dressed in traditional attires by which the media still portrays “Africa” today. Of course, such attires are now only worn for ceremonies. All the men and women dancers had “Nare” written on their skirts which we were told was their totem “buffalo”
After the elaborate dancing greetings, we were invited to sit in the Kgotla(courtyard). I had first heard about the Kgotla when the Ambassador of the Botswana Embassy was visiting Ohio University and met us for a lunch talk. This village seemed to have recreated the setting of the Kgotla. The Kgotla is the place where all Batswana are allowed to raise their concerns or complaints. The woman explained that when visitors come to a village, they must first be taken to the Kgotla, where the chief decides whether it was safe to host the visitors. This made sense because I had read that Botswana was always invaded by foreigners and it probably was natural for them to be skeptical about visitors.
Then the chief(an old man) took some stones from his pouch and started throwing them(which was described as ‘talking to the bones”) and identifying whether we were really safe for the village. After a lot of disagreements and negotiations with the stones(that represented males and females), we were finally considered as safe and “welcome-worthy”.
The chief(apparently) talking to the stones!
Through the process, I noticed the ingrained patriarchy rooted in the tradition and culture where they talked about women’s decision as not worthy enough and how men are more powerful. This, although were just displays, gave me insights about the culture and made me think of its implication on gender-based violence, which was my research topic.
They spoke of a lot of traditional practices that I found interesting and couldn’t help wondering whether they are still practiced. For example, they told that when a married man migrated to work in the mines, he would never return to his wife’s room directly upon return. He would first inform his parents who would in turn inform the wife that her husband has returned. This was to allow the wife to be prepared for the husband’s return; otherwise the husband might suddenly come back and misunderstand if he saw a man in the wife’s room who may just be there to help her kill a snake! They also talked about the fact that if a wife has been unfaithful, she would have to confess to the mother-in-law and get cleansed! Some of these explanations sounded dubious to me; but helped me to get insights about the culture. We had read the importance of “traditional healing” in Botswana even today; and some of these explanations simply helped me to relate to what I have already read.
The “all-powerful” horn
The old lady also talked about this horn which was hung on the roof. The horn protected the family and was also used for mixing herbs.
The Kgotla ended with an elderly woman choosing men among us as her husband and wooing them. It was awe-striking how well the elderly ladies danced. While Ben, the first chosen husband, was embarrassed and danced awkwardly; Zach(the second chosen husband) jumped at the opportunity and bridged the African-Western cultural gap by dancing with the wooing bride!
Later, she gave us a tour of the traditional village and showed us how the women pounded sorghum and prepared food. They also invited some of us to join them in the ‘food-making’. This was almost like grains were traditionally prepared(and are still prepared in some villages) in my country Bangladesh.
A Tswana woman grinding sorghum, one of the main crop of Botswana
Sorghum, one of the main crop of Botswana
We were already hungry and feasted ourselves on the delicious food.
(Clockwise): Maize meal, Seswaa(beef boiled and then pounded), wild chicken, Morogo(leafy green), Tomato something(forgot the name), the flat cakes (diphaphatha), Papa, Beans and Maize
Bojalwa jwa Setswana(Traditional beer called, which is made from fermented sorghum.
After lunch, we ended up buying some traditional crafts as souvenirs.
(From left) T-shirts, traditional whistle, anklet-rattles, necklaces
Overall, the trip was great; and I think this is probably the closest that I’d experience Botswana’s traditional culture in this trip!
I have been ignoring my blog for a while as I immersed myself in the culture and the country of Botswana. Everyday after coming back to the dorm sometimes I checked my emails, wrote field notes, started a blog post(which I never finished), hanged out with people or just skyped with friends or family. Not that I did not have any time to write anything; but blogging was somehow not the priority. Thanks to the people who inquired over facebook or personal conversation about my next posts. This made me feel people were reading the blog; and the outreach of my audience inspired me. So, this blog is for all those people around the world who inspired me. I promise I will eventually post the other drafts I wrote, but now I have to write about today’s “Cultural Visit” while wonderful memory is fresh in my memory. We went to the Thamaga Pottery store, Manyana rock-painting, Livingstone’s Tree and my most favorite location of the day Bahurutshe Cultural Lodge.
Can’t help bragging about the outreach of the blog that truly surprised me!
So, the day started with the a quick breakfast, after which I ran to the Post Office to send post cards. After quite some search, we had “discovered” that postcards were sold at a pharmacy in the Main Mall. Who would think of looking for them there! The lady at the Post Office told that they would reach the destination within 7 office days; I thought that’s a pretty good speed for 8Pula(90 cents). I just hope that the Post Cards reach home before I do!
So, our journey started with a visit to the Thamaga Pottery Botswelelo Center. It took us around half an hour to reach the place. Thamaga is about 40km to the west of the capital Gaborone. It is the second largest village in the Kweneng District, after Molepolole. Of course, with my state-of-art bad direction sense, I would not know the way. But, I googled and found another traveler who has noted the directions in his/her blog.
The beautiful pottery in the showroom of Thamaga Pottery wow-ed us. There were hand-made cups, plates, pots, glasses, candle-stands and all sorts of beautiful things. It was refreshing to find crafts/souvenirs that were not imported from South Africa; although we learned that the clay is imported from South Africa. The crafts at Thamaga Pottery actually are unique to the Setswana culture and follows the Tswana designs that the Batswana used to decorate their mud floors. The initiative not only helped to retain Batswana art but also provides employment to the local community. My American friends also seem to appreciate the fact that the dishes are micro oven and dish-wash safe.
The project originally started in the 1970s as a community-based rural development initiative with the help of the Roman Catholic Missionary. A man named Julian Black offered free pottery training to the young people in the village with the intention to create employment. Today the place employs around 20 local people, most of whom are elderly women. Although the showroom attracts visitors, the initiative faces challenges like absenteeism and slow production process.
I, personally, was very interested to see the pottery making process. But, we learned that the crafts makers don’t work on weekends. If I ever get the chance to plan on visiting the place again, I would think of dropping by on a week-day! For today, I had to be satisfied with this picture!
Our next stop was the Manyana rock-painting site, 7.5 km from Thamaga road. The Botswana government site gives the directions here As we entered the fenced area of this gazette National Monument, the guards asked the number of men and women present in our group. Government tourist attractions like this do not have tickets; but they kept track of the number of visitors. I found it interesting how they also kept track of the gender of the visitors– this is something I hadn’t encountered in my trips to any other countries!
The guide enthusiastically showed us the rock paintings that are 2000-years old. He told us that the San(bushmen) drew the paintings in the place which most likely is where they performed their rituals. They drew giraffes, antelopes, rhino, humans and some different shapes. Although faint, when pointed out, you can clearly find the reddish, orange or black drawings on the rocks.
The guide also showed us a cave. I was so busy taking pictures that I failed to follow what it was about. I think it is Mma Kgosi cave(http://www.botswanabeckons.com/places/places-southern/item/the-manyana-rock-art-site), where the pregnant Kwena Queen hid during the battle of Dimawe (1852).
Lonely Planet guidebook also mentions about visiting Dimawe Hill in the same area where ruins are scattered around the granite hills. But, we didn’t get to visit that place.
After we were done with all the photo sessions, we went to the Livingtone’s Tree.
The place was beautiful and had an enormous tree which someone told was a fig tree. It is said that David Livingstone preached Christianity under those trees and practiced modern medicine. We, of course, were preaching only pictures and went on clicking our cameras!